Back then, it was compulsory for all able-bodied men to fight for Athens in times of wars. The Phaedo (57a-67b, 72e-77a, 95a-105e) A. A clever thinker and shrewd conversationalist, Socrates is known for encouraging people to carefully scrutinize their beliefs, often asking a series of simple questions to make his way toward a certain point. The exact charges that were levied against him were: Typical of Socrates, he was not perturbed by those charges. He warns Socrates that talking makes the poison less effective and additional doses may need to be given. In 399 BCE, Socrates passed away after he was sentenced to death by the Athenians. By taking a philosophical approach (the “Socratic Position”), he […], Your email address will not be published. I will first explain some of Plato’s ontological presuppositions. I've never seen the Blondie episode with Bruce. Socrates mounted a fierce defense during his trial. In such a way, Socrates stresses that the soul is immortal and the body is just a substance, which the soul gives life. According to some scholars, his philosophical skills made him far better able than Xenophon was to understand Socrates and therefore more valuable a source of information about him. In this regard, the soul has the power over the body because it is the soul that gives life to the body. If the soul was mortal, then life would not have any meaning, as for life to have meaning, finite time (life) is too less. CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates Report an issue with this question 21 Choose the false statement about Aristotle’s metaphysics. This plant was the go-to-plant for the execution of prisoners in ancient Greece. It must be noted that the history and story surrounding Socrates is not so much straightforward. Classical and Socioeconomic Views of Social Responsibility, The Enslavement and Control of Womenâs Body, Mind-Body Connection & How the Environment Effects Learning, Structure and Function of the Human Body – Respiration and Urinary Systems, Structure and Function of the Human Body – Lymphatic and Immune Sytems, Structure and Function of the Human Body: A Broken Heart, Anatomy and Structure of the Human Body – Sense Your Hormones. I will then walk through the argument, voiced by Plato’s main character Socrates. The Asceticism of the Phaedo: Pleasure, Purification, and the Soul’s Proper Activity Abstract: I argue that according to Socrates in the Phaedo we should not merely evaluate bodily pleasures and desires as worthless or bad, but actively avoid them. Material things like wealth, financial gains and power have not and cannot give us true happiness. Socrates last words to his dear friend, Crito. Long, A. The Soul Is Immortal: Socrates and Plato. Chose to remain in prison and see through his death sentence. Socrates was one of the most influential philosophers of ancient Greece, whose impact can be traced in the development of western philosophy. All of the above ideas flew right across the faces of the powerful and elite in ancient Athens. Introduction; Setting: the ship of Theseus has just returned from Delos so that the execution can finally proceed. Required fields are marked *. The reasons why he stayed in prison can be inferred from the Phaedo and the Crito as follows: First and foremost, Socrates was not the type of person to shy away from a fight. He ended up assisting his father at his workshop. He believed that a virtuous soul is one that is brave enough to stand in the face of persecution. There was no hesitation whatsoever on his part. It begins when Socrates seeks the true … True to form as a determined and committed philosopher, Socrates has chosen to spend these hours discussing the nature of the soul and the afterlife, in a bid to comfort his friends that he is ultimately going to a better place after death. Socrates explains that the theory which he regards as most certain, as least vulnerable to attack, is none other than the Theory of Forms. Their focus of the study was mainly on cosmology, mathematics, and ontology. Examples of such schools were the Milesians, Xenophanes, Pythagorians, Eleatics, Heraclitus, and the Sophists. Tags: Ancient Greek PhilosophersClassical Greek PhilosophyPlatoPlato's DialoguesSocratesSocratic method, […] Plato was born in either 428 or 427 BCE in ancient Athens. According to Socrates, the theory of recollection is that all knowledge is known from previous experience. Socrates explored the various theories of immortality of the soul and tried to show that there is life after death in which … The dialogue Phaedo, which depicts the death of Socrates, is also Plato’s fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher’s final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito. The final reason has to do with Socrates’ high sense of “social contract” with the state. Phaedo is asked if he had been present with Socrates on the day that he drank the poison. Contrary to what the likes of Xenophon and Aristotle said, Plato claimed that Socrates did not accept payments for his services. Phaedo. For instance, Plato wrote extensive dialogues (Plato’s Dialogues) where the main character in the conversation was his tutor Socrates. - the Last words of Socrates, according to Plato. However, he was not so good looking. The task of writing what this wonderful philosopher thought and spoke about fell to his students and followers. Perhaps Socrates felt that his time was up. Note that, formally speaking, Socrates is committing a fallacy; he treats a condition that is necessary for being with the gods (purity) as if it were a sufficient condition. In such a way, the difference is absolute and it is through the unification of these contrasting characteristics of the body and the soul, the human body gets life, while the soul gets its substance for existence since with the help of the body the soul can exist in the real world. Socrates, as dep Unfortunately, the jury wanted to have nothing to do with any Socratic Method of analyzing the charges. As friends and fellow philosophers Cebes, Crito, and Simmias crowd around Socrates, they express how sad they are that he’s about to die. According to them, the physis (nature) remains unchanged but the nomos (law) is what varies. To say that Socrates’ ideas were radical at that time would be an understatement. The dialogue is primarily an argument for the immortality of the soul that Socrates is trying to convince his grief-ridden colleagues, and maybe indeed himself, of in order to prove that his execution is merely the separation of his soul … When the body dies, the soul departs from the mortal body only to enter a new body depending on its karma or actions of present life. He was a philosopher who used reasoning, and not myths or superstition, to interpret the world. This idea is what forms the basis of the social contract theory that we have today. We need to avoid them because they change our values and make us believe … He is credited to have said: “the unexamined life is not worth living”. This is because there are lots of key points about Socrates that have been corroborated by philosophers such as Aristotle and Xenophon. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The Phaedo takes places in 399 BC at the scene of the final days of Socrates’ life. Therefore, escaping was far too a heavy price to pay. The philosopher simply became a thorn in the flesh of the ruling elites. The lack of proper chronicles and autobiography makes it difficult for historians to accurately give details about Socrates’ childhood. All Rights Reserved. The writings of Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle paint some very ground-breaking reasoning by Socrates. He reasoned that his trial and punishment were not something to be frowned upon. The Homeric poems, with which most ancient writers can safely beassumed to be intimately familiar, use the word ‘soul’ intwo distinguishable, probably related, ways. by Plato translated by Benjamin Jowett PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: PHAEDO, who is the narrator of the dialogue to ECHECRATES of Phlius; SOCRATES; APOLLODORUS; SIMMIAS; CEBES; CRITO; ATTENDANT OF THE PRISON; PHAEDO. These included Simmias, Cebes, Crito, Apollodorus, and several other people. The soul is immortal and has eternal fate. For the entirety of his life, this classical Greek philosopher devoted himself to finding the most ideal way of living a moral life. At this point, Socrates again stresses the superiority of the soul over the body. The reign of the Thirty Tyrants did not last for long. Accounts and dialogues from his students mostly transport us to a time when Socrates was a relatively old man. Socrates married Xanthippe. ), was put to death by the state of Athens. Plato’s Academy: the World’s First University, The Boston Massacre: The American Revolution, Julius Caesar: History, Accomplishments and Facts, Answers to Popular Questions about Plato - World History Edu. In fact, according to Socrates, it turns out that the body is vulnerable to basic emotions and actions, whereas the soul controls the body and prevents it from falling into fallacy and inadequate behavior. According to him, the physical world we live in was just a mirror image of things that are false. The process of pursuing those truths is what is termed as the Socratic Method. Note, also, that at the end of Plato's Phaedo, Socrates asks his friend, Crito, to offer a rooster as sacrifice to the god, Asclepius (see Phaedo 118a). He called on every Athenian to become a philosopher first and foremost. Who could blame them? Socrates - Socrates - Plato: Plato, unlike Xenophon, is generally regarded as a philosopher of the highest order of originality and depth. It is plain that both of these arguments apply to the souls of all living things, including plants (cf. According to the last line of argument that Socrates offers in the Phaedo, the soul is immortal because it has life essentially, the way fire has heat essentially. Needless to say, none of the four main lines of argument that Socrates avails himself of succeeds in establishing the immortality of the soul, or in demonstrating that disembodied souls enjoy lives of thought and intelligence (Long & Sedley, 146). World History Edu © 2020. What is really going on is that Socrates has a faiththat the gods will allow those who are sufficiently purified to enter their company. The ideals (FORMS) of justice, beauty, bravery, and honesty remain unchanged. Many of those elites considered Socrates’ sayings a threat to the stability of Greece. He replies that he was present, and he also mentions several of the other persons who were there at the time. Phaedo had been present at the execution of the old crank, and Echecrates asked him to relate how Socrates met his end. Socrates believe that the purpose of philosophy is to gain more wisdom and by questioning things one is gaining more knowledge. Plato: Phaedo The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.It claims to recount the events and conversations that occurred on the day that Plato’s teacher, Socrates (469-399 B.C.E. In 399 BCE, the execution was carried out by means of a drink laced with the poisonous hemlock (Conium maculatum). He was born in 469 BCE at a place called Deme Alpoece, Athens. 70d, 71d). In addition, the soul controls the body, which may have different mental states, which are not good for humans. At the same time, the soul is not narrowly intellectual: it too has desires, even passionate ones, such as the non-philosophical soul’s love [erÃ´s] of the corporeal and pleasures as well, such as the pleasures of learning (Long & Sedley, 155). The Phaedo takes places in 399 BC at the scene of the final days of Socrates’ life. Be able to explain Socrates's two separate arguments that we should not for death. In fact, Socrates stood on the ground that body and soul are different entities, but he also believed that the soul gives life to the body. See to it, and don't forget." Plato. Exactly when Socrates began thinking deeply about life and morality is unknown. However, the difference is significant enough and the struggle between the body and the soul carries on. Even though the soul also has its desires but they are still superior to those of the body and the difference between the soul and the body defined by Socrates reveals the superiority of the soul and the inferiority of the body. Plato’s dialogues portrayed him as thoughtfully and very articulate during the trial. Socrates, as dep It is plain that both of these arguments apply to the souls of all living things, including plants (cf. Also, he added that the soul will continue to exist even after a man has perished and that it possesses intelligence and capability. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul. Thus, taking into account all above mentioned it is important to place emphasis on the fact that Socrates distinguishes clearly the soul and the body. Because Phaedo is an account of Socrates ’s final discussion before his execution, the majority of the dialogue is concerned with the notion of mortality. The philosopher is concerned with the soul and not with the body. Socrates, however, is at peace, explaining … Socrates, the classical Greek Athenian philosopher, staunchly believed in the Immortality of the Soul and preached that the soul is eternal as it never dies and continues to live forever. On the other hand, it is what at the time of death departs fromthe person's limbs and travels to the underworld, where it has a moreor less pitiful afterlife as a s… Also, Socrates believed that the best form of philosophy is one that probes deep and questions the things in this world. In this regard, his views on the body and the soul are particularly important because he was one of the philosophers, who distinguished clearly the body and the soul. Socrates’ contribution to philosophy can fully be seen in the accounts of the people that he influenced. Works Cited: He shocked the jury by stating that the state should rather pay him for his life-long dedication to Athens. His extensive works in ethics and epistemology are what formed the pillars of Western philosophy. He simply spoke out his mind and engaged in intellectual discussions with his followers. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul. For example, he would question them; debate with Athenians about why they held certain beliefs; and ask how those beliefs of theirs shape their lives. In that dialogue, Socrates is trying to comfort his … In such a way, the soul performs the controlling function. As explained in the Crito, Socrates has refused to escape because he feels that he owes obedience to the laws. Another student of Plato, Xenophon, expressed similar remarks. Phaedo’s reply, composed by Socrates… The Athenians considered Socrates as someone against democracy. There have been some levels of contradictions in Plato’s dialogues and among the accounts of Xenophon and Aristotle. Socrates says not only that the soul is immortal, but also that it contemplates truths after its separation from the body at the time of death. Socrates concludes from this reasoning that there are two classes of things: those that are invisible, invariable, and incomposite, and those that are visible, variable, and composite. "Crito, we ought to offer a cock to Asclepius. Coupled with this, Athens was in a recovery process after the lost to Sparta during the Peloponnesian War. Furthermore, Socrates does not attribute all mental states to the soul but argues that only some mental states may be attributed to the soul, whereas others to the body. Socrates gave them hope; he inspired in them a new way of thinking and viewing the world. Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth. Have only heard it used for Obama. According to Cebes, why is Socrates' belief that the gods are asking him to commit suicide wrong? Unlike the sophists, Socrates believed that the law (nomos) never changes. Your email address will not be published. In the Phaedo, we find a series of reflections that are directly relevant to the Melissa/Melinda quandary. And certainly, he wasn’t going to do so even when death stared at him right in the face. Bremmer, J. Plato’s Apology and Symposium both claim that Socrates did not accept money or any other payment in kind for his tutoring works. When Socrates attained the age of maturity, it is likely that he served in the military during the Peloponnesian War, which festered between Athens and Sparta. It was the last dialogue that he wrote in the middle period of Socrates final days. On the other hand, the asking questions were what gave him fulfillment and joy. Socrates’ death has been described as a very tragic one. Worldhistoryedu is not responsible for the content of external sites. Disclaimer: Essay4you.net is an academic writing agency that provides research papers, thesis, essays as well as other custom papers exclusively for the purposes of research. That, in turn, went on to influence the world for the next 2000 or so years. & D. N. Sedley, (eds.) Nothing, however, could be further from the truth. Socrates replied that it was because of the immortality of the soul that death was no evil. Socratic philosophy sharply differs from its predecessors because it searches for a universal truth. Often times, it started off as a simple question and then it glided into more and more questions. Phaedo is one of the dialogues that were created by Plato; the Phaedo tried to depict the death of Socrates. I enjoyed them, and was intrigued by Socrates, and so continued with them until I came to the Phaedo, which was, I believe, the last of the dialogues in the volume. Kind courtesy of the efforts and sheer brilliance of his most famous student, Plato, Socrates ideas and philosophy continue to hold significant sway in our world, even after thousands of years. That is how much of an influence Socrates had on Ancient Greek philosophy. While in prison, Socrates had the opportunity to break free, however, he chose not to do so. Aristophanes wrote that Socrates took payments in exchange for tutoring at a Sophist school. Not expanding=not living. One of Socrates’ friends, Crito, made arrangements for Socrates to prison break to freedom. The dialogue is primarily an argument for the immortality of the soul that Socrates is trying to convince his grief-ridden colleagues, and maybe indeed himself, of in order to prove that his execution is merely the separation of his soul from his body… and not his actual ‘death’. Socrates believed that there was a division between the body and the soul, and that the body played no part in the attainment of knowledge. The soul is, on the onehand, something that a human being risks in battle and loses indeath. Next, Socrates points out that we are part body, part soul, and makes Cebes concede that the body is classed among the visible, variable, … Socrates, the classical Greek Athenian philosopher, staunchly believed in the Immortality of the Soul and preached that the soul is eternal as it never dies and continues to live forever. They were deeply immersed in a mythological approach of dealing with the physical world. - the Last words of Socrates, according to Plato. Similarly, Xenophon (in his Symposium) stated that Socrates was obsessed with discussing philosophy. Socrates was among the people that were taken into custody. In the dialogue, Socrates discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock . Phaedo is one of the dialogues that were created by Plato; the Phaedo tried to depict the death of Socrates. Updated April 10, 2020. As a result of his family’s financial hardships, Socrates could not obtain any formal education. A. Hence, the body becomes a carrier of the soul. Socrates’ Approach to Philosophy (The Socratic Method) Socratic philosophy sharply differs from its predecessors because it searches for a universal truth. Shortly after this, the new government started clamping down on all those that were affiliated to the Thirty Tyrants. His discussions about virtues and justice quickly caught on with the youths of ancient Athens. This is the theory that there exist as real entities such things as Beauty in itself, Goodness in itself, and Largeness in itself. Contradictions in the accounts of what Socrates believed in stem from the writings in Plato’s dialogue. When the body dies, the soul departs from the mortal body only to enter a new body depending on its karma or actions of … Therefore, the soul turns out to be something immortal and superior, while the body is mortal and inferior. As a result, humans are in the permanent struggle between their body and their soul, for the body generates different mental states, while the soul restricts them and imposes its control and impact on the body. PHAEDO: It is the ship in which, according to Athenian tradition, Theseus went to Crete when he took with him the fourteen youths, and was the saviour of them and of himself. We are starting near the beginning of our philosophical tradition, with Plato (427-347 BCE), the first of the great philosophers of the Western tradition. Summary. Phædo or Phaedo (/ ˈ f iː d oʊ /; Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidōn, Greek pronunciation: [pʰaídɔːn]), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. Hence, those truths should be the pursuit of every one of us in order to lead a moral life. Theory Of Recollection Phaedo. This piece on Socrates has been summarized with the following interesting facts about Socrates: In the past 24 or so centuries, Socrates’ ideas and sphere of influence have stretched all over the world. It has been retold for a countless number of times over thousands of years.
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